Periodontal Disease

The toxins released by the bacteria in dental plaque which has accumulated along the gum margin for a period of time irritate the periodontal tissues (tooth supporting tissues) and lead to Periodontal Disease.

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Under the following situations, you are prone to having Periodontal Disease:

Accumulation of dental plaque

Wearing dentures that are not thoroughly cleaned

Dental plaque and food debris easily accumulate in the space between the denture and the gingivae (gum).

Accumulation of calculus

The rough surface of calculus allows dental plaque to build up more easily.

Irregular teeth

The irregular alignment of teeth makes it difficult to clean these teeth.


Smokers have five times greater chance to suffer from Periodontal Disease than non-smokers because:

Early symptoms of Periodontal Disease is less noticeable in smokers

Smoking makes early symptoms of Periodontal Disease such as swollen gums and bleeding while brushing less noticeable because chemicals in cigarettes such as nicotine cause blood vessel constriction. As the bleeding symptom is not obvious, it is not easy to discover that the gingivae have been inflamed. As a result, the Periodontal Disease will aggravate unnoticed.

Smoking lowers the body resistance and therefore lowers the healing capability of patients with Periodontal Disease

Nicotine in cigarettes lowers the healing capability of oral tissues, retards the healing process and causes the Periodontal Disease to worsen.


Stress lowers the body resistance towards illnesses including Periodontal Disease.

Hormonal changes during pregnancy

Because of the hormonal changes during pregnancy, the periodontal tissue of an expectant mother is more susceptible to the irritation of toxins released by the dental plaque, resulting in red, swollen and bleeding gums. This is called " Pregnancy Gingivitis".

Systemic diseases

Systemic diseases such as Diabetes Mellitus, Leukaemia, and AIDS, lower the resistance of the periodontal tissues towards bacterial infection. Bacteria inside the dental plaque will intrude and cause Periodontal Disease if the oral cavity isn't thoroughly cleaned. Furthermore, the healing capability is also lowered in patients suffering from these diseases, and it is more difficult for them to recover from Periodontal Disease. Therefore, Periodontal Disease is more progressive and severe in these patients.

Intake of medications

Intake of medications such as anti-hypertensive and anti-convulsant drugs stimulate the multiplication and activity of fibroblasts (a type of cells) in the gingivae and causes gingival swelling. Dental plaque that accumulates in the swollen gingivae is difficult to be cleaned, which leads to more gingival inflammation and further swelling.

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